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is at a distance of about 15 Km from Kakinada on Kakinada Yanam
Road. Coringa Sanctuary, named after a tiny village coringa in East
Godavari District of Andhra Pradesh a part of Godavari Mangroves was
declared as a wildlife sanctuary by Govt. of Andhra Pradesh vide
G.O.Ms.No - 484, Forests and Rural Development (For.III) Department
dated 5-7-1978 was to conserve the mangrove vegetation of the
estuary, extending in an area of about
235.Sq.Kms. It is located
between 16o-30' to 17o-00' N latitudes and 82o-14'
to 82o-23'E longitudes. Mangroves are
salt - tolerent forest
ecosystems of tropical and sub - tropical intertidal regions of the world.
They normally occur between high waterlevel and near about mean sea level
along the sheltered shores, estuaries, tidal creeks, back-waters, lagoons,
marshes and mud-flats.
Where conditions favour the Mangroves may form
extensive and productive forests in the sheltered coastal lines. The mangrovees contain a highly
specialised community of plants associated with
animal species which are not capable of surviving in any other situations. Mangrove occur in Andhra Pradesh in estuaries of
Krishna and Godavari rivers. Andhra Pradesh has got an area of 582 Sq.KM.of
Mangrove forests, accounting for about 9% of local forest area of the State,
which amounts to just about 2% of the local geographical area of the State.
Even the entire land under mangroves do not contain fully the Mangrove
vegetation. The area includes forest of open blanks. Sandy patches and
distribution of mangrove forests are as below:
||AREA IN Ha.|
Importance of Mangroves to Mankind
- Mangroves forest act as a barrier
against the coastal storms, high velocity winds, and the high tidal
waves thus protecting the villages and the agricultural land.
- Mangroves are a highly productive
ecosystem, and supply nutrients to the marine living resources and thus
increasing the Fish, Prawn, Crab etc., production.
- Mangroves provide shelter to the
wildlife particularly as nesting ground for migratory birds.
- They protect the coast-line from
erosion and also it reclaims land from the sea.
- They build up and extend coastal soil
by accumulation and stabilisation of sediments.
- They provide highly valued products
like timber for boat building, Bark for tanning, Seedlings for food etc.
Thirty Five Plant Species are present in this sanctuary belonging to twenty four families. The Plants species commonly found here are
|Species||Telugu Names||Species||Telugu Names|
|Avicennia officinalis||Nalla Mada||Avicennia marina||Tella Mada|
|Avicennia alba||Vilva Mada||Excoecaria agallocha||Tilla|
|Rhizophora mucronata||Uppu Ponna||Ceriops decandra||Calhasu|
|Bruguiera gymnorrhiza||Oorudu||Lumnitzera recemosa||Thanduga|
|Sonneratia apetala||Kalinga||Rhizophora conjugata||Ponna|
|Aegiceras corniculatum||Guggilam||Thespesia populneoides||Attakanarai|
marina. A officinalis and A.alba representing the family
Avicenniaceae and Excoecaria agallocha belonging to Euphorobiaceae
are dominant. The Mangrove plants exhibit interesting adaptations
such as stilt roots as in Rhozophora, Pneumatophores (respiratory
roots) in Avicennia and Sonneratia, viviparous seedlings in
Rhizophora, Bruguiera and Ceriops.A
part from the above tree species shrubs like Dalbegia spinosa (
Chillangi), Derris trifoliata (Nallatheega). Acanthus ilicifolius (Alchi)
and Clerodendrum inerme (Pisingi) and herbs like Sesuvium portulacastrum,
Suaeda maritima (IIakura), Suaeda monoica (IIakura) and Salicornia
brachiatta and grasses like Aeluropus lagopoides. Porteresia coarctate
(Yelugaddi) and Myriostachya wightiana (Dabbagaddi) are also found in the
Fauna of Mangroves
fauna found in mangroves is unique and cannot survive in any other
ecological situation. Mangroves provide different varieties of conditions
for the habitation of variety of animal population. The crowns of trees
including trunk, branches, leaves, flowers and fruits provide niches
essentially, to terrestrial fauna like birds, mammals and insects. The
soil surface of mangroves provide niche for mudskippers, crabs and
molluses. The water in the forest supports a variety of animals like the
smooth Indian Otters (Mud skipper, Crab) Jackal Monkeys and Fishing cat.
The Sanctuary has an unique distinction of having a 18 Km. long sand spit
in the North Eastern side, where the species of Olive Ridley sea turtle (
endangered species) nests during January - March every year.
Apart from these
animals, mangroves invariably attract large populations of birds which feed
on various organisms occurring in the mangrove forest and in the back water.
During the low tide some of the areas are exposed (elevated mud flats having
small fishes, shrimps, molluses) attracting avafauna for its feed. Over 120
species of birds are reported and among them the following are the common
birds found in the Sanctuary.
|Little Egret||Cattle Egret||Pied Kingfisher||Small Blue KingFisher|
|Black Capped KingFisher||Pond Heron||Reef Heron||Grey Heron|
|Night Heron||Little Stint||Sand Piper||Red Shrank|
|Red Wattle-Lapwing||Crow Pheasant||Flamingos||Sea Gulls|
|Purple Heron||Brahmini Kite||Open Bill Stork||Little Cormorant|
purpose of conserving, improving and developing the existing mangroves the
following conservation strategies are adopted. Bring mangroves under the
network of protected areas. Demarcation of MANGROVES, and Mangrove
sanctuaries including the core areas to avoid encroachments.
up various protection measures by intensified watch and ward. Taking up of
large scale afforestation of blanks by digging channels at 12.5 mts.
apart. The seedlings of 60 cms height. The seedlings grown in the nursery
are planted on sloped edges of the channels at 2.0 mts apart staggered
through the funds from the World bank Assistance and the Ministry of
Environment and Forests, Government of India.
Eco - Development Committees for the Conservation of man groves through
participatory approach towards conservation by providing welfare
measures/alternatives to the villagers living around the sanctuary to
reduce the dependency on the mangroves and at the same time enhancing the
livelihood of the coastal community. Setting up of Nature Study center to
educate the local people regarding the importance of fragile ecosystem and
the necessity for it's protection and it's role in the environment.
sanctuary is easily accessible from Kakinada. East Godavari District
of Andhra Pradesh, The Kakinada town is well connected by rail and road.
The sanctuary can be visited from places viz;Chollangi, Matlapalem or
Ramannapalem which are located on Kakinada to Yanam Road about 10 - 15 Km.
distance from Kakinada
- December to June: By boat and By foot.
- Forest Rest Houses are available at :
- Kakinada. Contact:Division Forest
Officer (Territorial), Madhavanagar, Kakinada, Phone no: 0884 -
2379381 or Phone no: 0884 - 2367460
- Rajahmundry. Contact:Division Forest Officer, Wildlife Management Division,Opp. Govt. Arts College, Rajahmundry-3. Phone no: 0883 - 2448643
The conservator of forests,
Phone no: 0883 - 2444247
Divisional Forest Officer,
Wildlife Management Division